The nipple does not project properly outwards but is retracted into the breast areola. Treatment is surgical with local anesthesia.
The nipple is large and projects through the woman’s clothing. It is corrected surgically, with local anesthesia.
This is a condition in which the areola is disproportionately large compared to the breast. It is treated under local anesthesia with a periareolar incision and a reduction of its surface.
This is a small, nipple-like lesion. It is located along the mammary line (the imaginary line connecting the armpit to the groin, right or left). This condition is called supernumerary nipple. It is surgically removed by local anesthesia.
Reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex
Restoration of the nipple-areola complex is done in the final stage of breast reconstruction after mastectomy, under local anesthesia. The nipple is reconstructed with a local flap, while the areora with a skin graft from the groin area or medical tattoo.